In 1680 Robert Hook discovered the phenomenon of visualizing sound by using a violin bow and placing flour and sand onto a plate then running a violin bow along the side of the plate, it created various patterns which were to become known as Nodel Patterns.
Hans Jenny was a physician and natural scientist, in 1967 he published The Study of the Wave Phenomena in which he established and described the process of Cymatics. Cymatics is the visualization of sound frequencies using fluids, powders, and various other materials. Click here to read the research paper on SEEING SOUND: HANS JENNY AND THE CYMATIC ATLAS By Stephen D. Lewis University of Pittsburgh, BPhil, 2010
John Stuart Reid is one of the most current researchers to be expanding the knowledge into Cymatics. Click here on notes from his live interview in May 2016 John Stuart Reid interview 2016
A paper and research has just been released in Faraday Wave Patterns please click here to read.
All this research backs up the theory that nature has a frequency, and vibration is the language used to create an order for the universe to communicate with all and everything.
Throughout my research, I have begun to deepen my understanding on a scientific level and have discovered that every cell in our body and our brains are communicating via a frequency. Take a look at this paper written by Matthias Schneider, Boston University, Can Cells Signal each other via Sound Waves.
In my process I have researched it from a scientific angle. I enjoy using science to inform and direct my practice. Artists and Scientists use a similar approach in their research and processes. They are creating new undiscovered theories. Scientists and artists are creators and they often work around and outside of the known concepts. The artist’s approach can assist the scientist in their new found discoveries by making their research a physical object or a sound. When an artist and scientist work together they create a physical thing that can communicate the scientist’s theory to the outside world.
It is often found that the artist has been working around and with various theories well before the scientific discovery is made and documented.
Pollock was a controversial artist, many people thought his work was erratic and lacking in skill. We have now discovered that Pollocks paintings contain a pattern that represents fractual data. Physicist Richard Taylor realized that the fractual equation could be applied to Pollock’s work. Richard Taylor has created a machine called The Pollockizer which replicates Pollocks process.
Some fractal patterns exist only in mathematical theory, but others provide useful models for the irregular yet patterned shapes found in nature—the branchings of rivers and trees, for instance. Mathematicians tend to rank fractal dimensions on a series of scales between 0 and 3. One-dimensional fractals (such as a segmented line) typically rank between 0.1 and 0.9, two-dimensional fractals (such as a shadow thrown by a cloud) between 1.1 and 1.9, and three-dimensional fractals (such as a mountain) between 2.1 and 2.9. Most natural objects, when analyzed in two dimensions, rank between 1.2 and 1.6. Student presentation. Escher followed mathematical equations when creating his complex patterns. The visual results he achieved are very powerful. When the human brain interacts with the image it tries to work out the code. For more info on using science and theories in an artist, practice click here.
Sonification of Matter.
I have been researching in the sonification of matter, being able to hear the molecule structure of a rock, or the process of cells being created, the human brainwaves or the formation and structure of the world wide web is a process called sonification.
Sonification is an auditory display, it requires an interdisciplinary approach in fields that include Physics, Audiology, Audio Engineering, Computer Science, Product Design, Acoustics, and Sound Design. Since the formation of The International Community for Auditory Display (ICAD) began in 1992, Herman, Hunt, Neuhoff, Logos (2011, 1), sonification has become another technique for artists, designers and scientists to present their found data. Due to the invention of computing and new technologies, forward thinkers, scientists, artists, and physicists are able to transmit their found data into an audible presentation. Having audible data alongside visual data could assist in developing new ideas and concepts. The presentation of audible data strengthens our perceptualization.
Sonification is very different from sound art and music, it is the audible transmission of information and data. The world we live in is full of visual and auditory stimulation. Atoms, molecules, form, matter, and objects all contain a code or form of data. Frequency is another source of universal communication and code that is used by living and non-living matter. If human beings were able to transpose all the coding, communication and these frequencies were audible to the human ear our sensory system would overload, we can, however, use technology as the source of research and presentation.
In the field of sonification, there is a wealth of complex concepts for the artists to use as inspiration. The artist would need to familiarise themselves in subjects of physics, computer science, psychology, acoustics and audio design and approach their chosen subject or object in a multidisciplinary approach using the listed fields to process their final piece. Having to use so many processes, academia may argue that the artist’s conceptual final piece may be diluted through the many processes used. The artist may also lack knowledge in the required fields and will be constrained by their abilities, which will have a negative effect on their final piece. If the artists presents its final piece as sonification without visuals, the viewer may find the final piece has lost conceptual value and aesthetically lacking in presence.
There are many artists presenting their work in sonification such as Aftershock (Natasha Barratt, Karen Mair, 2014). The work was exhibited in Gallery ROM, Oslo in 2011 it is the sonification of the meteorological data found in real time. The artists and physicist working on the collaboration are hoping that the research and process that was presented would assist to the knowledge of learning rock defragmentation pattern, which influences earthquakes. Electrical Walks (Christine Kubisch, 2004), this piece is the invention and use of headphones that pick up electromagnetic fields. An Instrument for the sonification of everyday things (Paul Dennis, 2012) is a laser that converts a physical object into sound.
Physical matter based sonification is still in its infancy. Due to the growth of the world wide web artists are able to research and collaborate with each other in most parts of the world. There are many Institutes and Communities to be found that specialize in the process of MBS, matter-based sonification.
There are many organizations throughout the web using open source, such as Fablab, where the artists can find coding and information on MBS that can assist their process. The skill set of a sonic artist requires an understanding of multiple subjects, they need to approach their work as a scientist, computer programmer, designer, and artist. This approach educates the artists on many levels and enriches the final piece. The ability to present your work through sonification, as an artist allows the viewer to have multiple perceptional experiences within the work presented.
Below is an interesting variety of different approaches into the sonification of matter, which includes the use of a laser taking recordings from the silhouette of the item, and the film below is Fermi Gamma-Ray data that been converted into music.
Dennis Paul has created a musical instrument called, An Instrument for the Sonification of Everyday things. Click here to watch video demo
Kubisch, C 2004, Electrical Walks, Festival Klangraum- Raumklang, Cologne.
Miranda, Eduardo Reck, and Marcelo M. Wanderley. New digital musical instruments: control and interaction beyond the keyboard. Vol. 21. AR Editions, Inc., 2006.
Reas, Casey, and Ben Fry. Processing: a programming handbook for visual designers and artists. Vol. 6812. Mit Press, 2007.
Hermann, Thomas. “Taxonomy and definitions for sonification and auditory display.” (2008).
Reas, Casey, and Chandler McWilliams. Form+ Code: In Design, Art, and Architecture. Princeton Architecturel Press, 2010.
Hermann, Thomas, and Andy Hunt. The sonification handbook. Berlin, GE: Logos Verlag, 2011.
Dennis, P 2012, An Instrument for the Sonification of every day things.
Franinović, Karmen, and Stefania Serafin. Sonic interaction design. Mit Press, 2013.
Barrett, N. & Mair, K. 2014, “Aftershock: A science-art collaboration through sonification”, Organised Sound, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 4-16.
Vickery, L. (2014). The Limitations of Representing Sound and Notation on Screen. Organised Sound, 19, pp 215-227.